Attention: This is a translated version of the original article in Russian. In case of any discrepancies or misunderstanding found in the text below, the Russian version shall prevail.
Interaction of charges — could it be the basis for the universe?
Infinite varieties of the natural phenomena are reduced in the present-day physics to four fundamental interactions. The law of gravitation was discovered first, then came the turn for electromagnetic and, finally, so-called strong (nuclear) and mild interactions. The relationship and possible unity of all these interactions had been studied by many scientists, including A.Einstein who devoted forty years of his life to this problem. Few theories were proposed which found their supporters and adversaries but neither solution gained the general recognition as yet.
As atoms are the basis of the material world and they include protons and electrons being the carriers of elementary charges, it is obvious to suppose that four fundamental forces of the nature would also interact with each other. Let us try to prove this conjecture taking a very simple example, viz. expressing the gravity of two atoms of hydrogen through the interaction of two pairs of above-mentioned particles being their constitutive parts.
In accordance to well-established views, total interaction in a similar system of charges with account for their motion will be equal to zero. It is very likely that this great enigma could be resolved if we use a principally different approach that would require the questioning attitude to the whole spectrum of scientific knowledge and, primarily, the modern theory of electromagnetism.
In particular, as this theory says, in case of two like elementary charges å1 and å2 placed at a distance R and moving perpendicular to R in the same direction and at the same velocity v<< c(c— the velocity of light), the force of their interaction shall be equal to:
|(see: Kapitsa P.L. Experiment, theory,
practice. Ì., “Nauka”, 1981, pp. 80-81).
In a given case the resultant force is determined as the difference between electrostatic (Coulomb) interaction and Lorents force that is developed if one of the charges moves to the field of another charge.
However, the critical analysis of Eq.(1) makes us dubious regarding its validity: the force of interaction between charges is dependable on selection of the system of coordinates or on the reference point (benchmark) for velocity which is meaningless from the physical point of view. The theory as a whole is ambiguous, as according to it Lorents force would be developed only when the charges move in the magnetic field, whereas in our case they are motionless both with respect to each other and to their magnetic fields. Finally, it is unconvincing that the theoretical understanding about the magnetic field of a charge moving in linear and curvilinear ways is the same. We believe that these discrepancies arise from the current assumption that only electrons interact, while protons are neglected.
The author of this article proposes a new theory explaining interaction of electrical charges. On the basis of classical ideas the theory is capable by deduction to cover maximum facts using the minimum number of postulates. In particular, the above-mentioned case can be explained through the equation which was specifically derived and is alternative to Eq. (1):
|where v12 — relative velocity
of charges. Unlike Eq.1 (1), electrostatic and
electrodynamic components of this equation have similar
signs and velocity takes a specific value, since it is a
relative parameter. Thus, in accordance to Eq. (2), if
two charges move in parallel and at the same velocity,
the dynamic component shall be equal to zero. The
positive value will take place only if all charges move,
and direction of velocity will always coincide with
direction of the static component. Ultimately, the
proposed theory and, first of all, Eq. (2) consequent
from it, will allow to formulate all four fundamental
forces relying only on interactions of protons and
electrons, thereby explaining all varieties of the
Let us illustrate this capability taking the above example of attraction force for two hydrogen atoms. Using Eq.(2) we will find total force of interaction for constitutive electrical charges in all possible combinations (p1-p2, å1-ð2, p1-e2, and å1-e2). Before we start, for better understanding let us introduce the concept of arbitrary annular orbits of electrons at orbitals. Planes of these orbits can be oriented at random. It is clear that the resultant force of interaction of two atoms will differ from zero only if these planes are parallel and directions of orbital motion are similar (see Figure). In this case electrons rest regarding each other and desired force is determined as the sum of dynamic components of their interaction with protons. As we know radius of electron orbit in the hydrogen atom (r0 = 0.529 õ 10-8cm) and velocity of electron motion along this orbit (v=2.18 x lO8cm/s), we can find n, i.e. the number of arbitrary rotations of electron round proton at the moment t0 = 1 s:
|Next, using the methods of statistical physics (with account for equiprobable orientation of planes of arbitrary orbits) and substitute the values of protons and electron charges in Eq. (2) (as it is known, these charges are the same and equal to å = 4.8 x 10-10 units CGSE), we can estimate the resulting force of interaction of two hydrogen atoms at the time moment t0:|
|since t0 = 1 s, this value can be
ignored, if p number is measured in radian per second).
And last but not least, obtained value coincides with the value of the same force but found in accordance with Newton law:
|where G — gravity constant, mõ—
mass of hydrogen atom.
This fact will demand revision of the current views on the structure of atoms having two and more electrons. In compliance with the new theory, they do not consist of proton-neutron nuclei and surrounding electron envelopes, but rather of the respective number of identical, packed to the utmost spheres – atoms of hydrogen where all electrons move synchronously, each around assigned proton, keeping orientation regarding this proton, while their orbit planes are parallel. This model will permit to express the attractive force for any two atoms only through interaction of the constitutive electrical charges
|where A1 and À2 —
mass numbers of atoms.
Similarly, using known notions (Avogadro number, etc.) it is possible to determine the gravity interaction for any mass of substance.
Obtained results are helpful for a convincing and consistent demonstration of the common nature of all four fundamental forces. Interatomic forces "connecting elementary "hydrogen units" in a complex atom can be reduced to interaction of the constitutive charges under synchronous motion of all electrons inside the atom. Gravity can be explained by interaction of charges among different bodies, while their electrons move in chaotic way. The so-called electromagnetic interactions are described by means of Eq. (2) and other governing laws of the new theory. In some cases motion of electrical charges is analyzed as the part of the microworld, while in some other cases – as the part of the macroworld.
It follows from evaluations of the new theory that interatomic forces are greater than gravitational forces by 32 orders of magnitude, while the forces of interaction of specific electrons or protons – by 36 orders of magnitude. The difference of these values from traditionally accepted ones can be attributed to the fact that "traditional" fundamental forces are just subjective imagination coming from the attempts to explain stability of atoms on the basis of Reserford-Bohr model.
The proposed model of the complex atom and new calculated data are completely consistent with the experimental facts but, at the same time, they introduce the dramatic changes in our understanding of the material world. They allow to harmonize physical theories and laws which are currently available in the form of dispersed fragments poorly correlated with each other. In particular, it becomes possible to clarify the physical foundations of such phenomena as:
Finally, this model will allow to predict and verify by experiments a number of phenomena which are currently unknown to scientists. These phenomena include, among others, decreasing of radioactivity levels as well as gravitation under the conditions of cooling the substance at extreme temperatures and complete disappearance of these forces at absolute zero.
*Note: Owing to the very strict limitations on space for publication in the journal, this article had been significantly abridged. As a result, some logical links could be sensed as missing for this variant of the article. Also, the present variant represents the authors' material developed before 1991. A new publication which would contain more details on this subject with due regard for latest results will be posted on our Internet site in the nearest future.